WHAT IS CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

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Cardiovascular disease is includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease, Angina, Heart Attack, Congenital Heart Disease and Stroke. It is also known as heart diseas.

What increases my risk of cardiovascular disease?

Smoking
smoking is a big reason for increase cardiovascular disease and Heart disease. Smoking damage lining of artery. In Tabaco smoke carbon monoxide reduce present of oxygen in blood for this reason heart has to more pump for oxygen supply in blood. Nicotine also stimulate adrenaline in body which make heart beat faster and raise blood pressure in body.

High blood pressure-

High blood pressure is common reason for CVD and heart disease.

High blood cholesterol- Cholesterol is a fatty substance found in blood. If there too much cholesterol in blood, it can increase risk of heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases.

Being physically inactive-

Physical activity helps control weight, reduce blood pressure and cholesterol and improve mental health which help to look and feel great. Many health problems can be helped by regular physical activity.

Being overweight or obese-

If any are overweight or obese any are more high risk to develop coronary heart disease than someone who is a healthy weight.

Diabetes-

Diabetes causes high levels of glucose in your blood. This is because of a problem with a hormone pancreas produces called insulin.  Insulin is responsible for moving glucose from bloodstream and into the cells of body for energy. If there little or no insulin being produced, or your body has become resistant to insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream and can’t move across to cells to give them energy to work properly.

Family history of heart disease-

any have family history of cardiovascular disease, make sure tell doctor. They may want to check your blood pressur and If any are over 40 years of age, they can visit their doctor and ask for a heart health check to find out their risk of getting cardiovascular disease.

There are different type of heart disease ? Common cardiovascular conditions Rheumatic heart disease

Rheumatic heart disease is caused by one or more attacks of rheumatic fever, which then do damage to the heart, particularly the heart valves. Rheumatic fever usually occurs in childhood, and may follow a streptococcal infection. In some cases, the infection affects the heart and may result in scarring the valves, weakening the heart muscle, or damaging the sac enclosing the heart. The valves are sometimes scarred so they do not open and close normally.

  1. Valvular heart disease- The heart’s valves keep blood flowing through the heart in the right direction.  But a variety of conditions can lead to valvular damage. Hypertensive heart disease High blood pressure of unknown origin (primary hypertension) or caused by (secondary hypertension) certain specific diseases or infections, such as tumour in the adrenal glands, damage to or disease of the kidneys or their blood vessels. High blood pressure may overburden the heart and blood vessels and cause disease.
  2. Aneurysm – An aneurysm is a bulge or weakness in the wall of a blood vessel.  Aneurysms can enlarge over time and may be life threatening if they rupture. They can occur because of high blood pressure or a weak spot in a blood vessel wall. Aneurysms can occur in arteries in any location in your body. The most common sites include the abdominal aorta and the arteries at the base of the brain.
  3.  Atherosclerosis – In atherosclerosis the walls of your arteries become thick and stiff because of the build-up fatty deposits. The fatty deposits are called plaques.  When this happens, the flow of blood is restricted. Atherosclerosis can happen throughout the body.  In the arteries of the heart it is known as coronary artery disease, in the legs, peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis happens over a period of time and its consequences can be grave and include heart attack and stroke.
  4. High blood pressure (hypertension) – High blood pressure is the excessive force of blood pumping through your blood vessels. High blood pressure causes many types of cardiovascular disease, such as stroke and heart failure, and renal disease.
  5.  Peripheral arterial disease – Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerosis, which is the narrowing and / or blockage of the blood vessels in the legs.  PAD manifests as pain in the legs when walking, which is relieved by rest.

Ischemic heart disease– Heart ailments caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries and therefore a decreased blood supply to the heart.

  1. Angina – Angina manifests as pain in the chest that results from reduced blood supply to the heart (ischemia). Blood carries oxygen around your body and depriving the heart of oxygen has serious consequences. Angina is caused by atherosclerosis, that is the narrowing and / or blockage of the blood vessels that supply the heart. The typical pain of angina is in the chest but it can often radiate to the left arm, shoulder or jaw. If you have angina you will have noticed that the pain is related to exertion and is relieved by rest. An angina attack is also associated with shortness of breath and sweating. If you are a woman you may experience angina slightly differently. Women appear to have more pain in their shoulder and middle back area, and more throat, neck, and jaw pain than men.
  2. Atherosclerosis – In atherosclerosis the walls of your arteries become thick and stiff because of the build-up fatty deposits. The fatty deposits are called plaques.  When this happens, the flow of blood is restricted. Atherosclerosis can happen throughout the body.  In the arteries of the heart it is known as coronary artery disease, in the legs, peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Atherosclerosis happens over a period of time and its consequences can be grave and include heart attack and stroke.
  3.  Coronary artery disease – Coronary artery disease is also known as ischemic heart disease. It is caused by atherosclerosis, that is the narrowing and / or blockage of the blood vessels that supply the heart. It is one of the most common forms of heart disease and the leading cause of heart attacks and angina.
  4. . Coronary heart disease – Coronary heart disease refers to the disease of the arteries to the heart and their resulting complications, such as angina, heart attacks and heart failure.
  5.  Heart attack – A heart attack (myocardial infarction) occurs when the heart’s supply of blood is stopped.  A heart attack need not be fatal, especially if you receive medical attention and treatment to deal with the blockage soon after you have your heart attack.  But you are likely to be left with a damaged heart post heart attack.
  6.   Sudden death – Sudden death occurs when there is an abrupt loss of the heart’s ability to pump blood. This may be because of heart attack or serious abnormality of the heart’s rhythm

Cerebrovascular disease– Disease pertaining to the blood vessels in the brain. A cerebrovascular accident or stroke is the result of an impeded blood supply to some part of the brain.

  1. Atherosclerosis – In atherosclerosis the walls of your arteries become thick and stiff because of the build-up fatty deposits. The fatty deposits are called plaques.  When this happens, the flow of blood is restricted. Atherosclerosis can happen throughout the body.  In the arteries of the heart it is known as coronary artery disease, in the legs, peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis happens over a period of time and its consequences can be grave and include heart attack and stroke.
  2. Cerebral vascular disease – Cerebral vascular disease is caused by atherosclerosis, that is the narrowing and / or blockage of the blood vessels that flow to the brain.  If the flow of blood is cut off this can lead to strokes and transient ischemic attacks.
  3. Stroke – A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted. This can happen either when a blood vessel in the brain or neck is blocked or bursts. If this happens, your brain is deprived of oxygen and parts of your brain may be permanently damaged. The consequences of a stroke can include problems with speech or vision, weakness or paralysis.
  4. Transient ischemic attacks – Just as stroke occurs when the flow of blood is blocked, TIAs happen when there is a brief blockage. The temporary loss of blood to the brain causes a brief, sudden change in brain function.  This may manifest as temporary numbness or weakness on one side of the body, loss of balance, confusion and blindness in one or both eyes, double vision, difficulty speaking, or a severe headache. But these will disappear quickly and permanent damage is unlikely.

Inflammatory heart disease – Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), the membrane sac (pericarditis) which surround the heart, the inner lining of the heart (endocarditis) or the myocardium (heart muscle). Inflammation may be caused by known toxic or infectious agents or by an unknown origin.

  1. Atherosclerosis – In atherosclerosis the walls of your arteries become thick and stiff because of the build-up of fatty deposits. The fatty deposits are called plaques.  When this happens, the flow of blood is restricted. Atherosclerosis can happen throughout the body.  In the arteries of the heart it is known as coronary artery disease, in the legs, peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis happens over a period of time and its consequences can be grave and include heart attack and stroke.
  2. Cardiomyopathy – Cardiomyopathy refers to diseases of the heart muscle. Some types of cardiomyopathy are genetic, while others occur because of infection or other reasons that are less well understood. One of the most common types of cardiomyopathy is idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, where the heart is enlarged. Other types include ischemic, loss of heart muscle; dilated, heart enlarged; hypertrophic, heart muscle is thickened.
  3. Pericardial disease – The sac that encases the heart is called the pericardium and it can be affected by a variety of conditions such as inflammation (pericarditis), fluid accumulation (pericardial effusion) and stiffness (constrictive pericarditis).
  4. Valvular heart disease – The heart’s valves keep blood flowing through the heart in the right direction.  But a variety of conditions can lead to valvular damage.  Valves may narrow (stenosis), leak (regurgitation or insufficiency) or not close properly (prolapse).

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